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WWII & Cold War Review

The disastrous effects of World War I and the Great Depression led
to the rise of totalitarian regimes in some countries

After coming to power in Italy, Benito Mussolini
banned political parties, took over the press, and suppressed strikes

After World War I, the Weimar Republic
appointed Adolf Hitler chancellor of Germany

After World War I, the Japanese military
reasserted its power and began aggressive military expansion

What policy did Great Britain, France, and the United States pursue against the new regimes in Germany, Italy, and Japan in the 1930’s?
appeasement

German troops overwhelmed Poland in 1939 by unleashing a blitzkrieg,
a new style of warfare that emphasized speed and firepower

Hitler’s plans to invade Britain depended on
the Luftwaffe controlling the skies above the English Channel

During the mid-1930’s, President Roosevelt realized that most Americans
opposed U.S. intervention in the problems of Europe

After World War II began, U.S. interventionists believed that Britain
was fighting for free countries everywhere and needed U.S. aid

After World War II began, U.S. isolationists believed that
the only way to keep America safe was to be completely neutral

What was Congress’s purpose in passing the Lend-Lease Act?
to provide Britain with the aid it needed but could not afford

Japan decided to attack Pearl Harbor because
the United States firmly opposed Japanese expansion

During the Bataan Death March,
close to 10,000 American and Filipino prisoners of war died

What is one way American women mobilized for the war effort?
They joined army, navy, and Coast Guard auxiliaries

Joseph Stalin admitted that American military production
was crucial to the Allied victory in World War II

Why was the Doolittle Raid important?
it bolstered American morale for the long fight ahead in the Pacific

The Battle of Coral Sea was crucial because it
renewed the confidence of the United States

Why did the Allies pursue a “Europe First” strategy?
they considered Germany to be their most dangerous enemy

The Battle of Stalingrad
ended any realistic plans Hitler had for dominating Europe

Why did Allied leaders want to drive Germany our of North Africa?
doing so would pave the way for an invasion of Italy

The invasion of Italy was difficult for the Allies because
the mountains and rivers of Italy slowed the Allied advance

In the most important naval battle of World War II, the United States
decisively defeated the Japanese in the Battle of Midway

President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 8802, which
assured fair hiring practices in any government-funded job

What was one long-term effect of the bracero program?
it initiated decades of migratory labor in western states

Some 100,000 Japanese Americans were evacuated from the West Coast during World War II and made to live in internment camps
because some West Coast leaders questioned their loyalty

In what way did Americans’ lives change during World War II?
some goods were rationed to free up resources for war production

In preparing for Operation Overlord, the Allies created a fake army to
convince the German army that the attack would come at Calais

How did the Battle of the Bulge ultimately damage Hitler’s efforts?
it used up German reserves and demoralized German troops

President Truman decided to use the atomic bomb against Japan
to save American lives

Hitler blamed Jews for all of Germany’s ills, especially
Germany’s defeat in World War I

What was the goal of Hitler’s “Final Solution”?
the extermination of all Jews in areas controlled by Germany

The War Refugee Board, established by President Roosevelt, worked
with the Red Cross to save Eastern European Jews

At Yalta, the “Big Three” agreed that
Bulgaria, Poland, and Romania would be free and hold elections

Shortly after World War II,
leading Nazis were put on trial for their actions during the war

What did many Americans realize about the United States as a result of World War II?
U.S. prosperity hinged on world peace and economic development

At Potsdam, Harry S. Truman hoped that Joseph Stalin would confirm the Soviet Union’s plan to
establish representative governments in Eastern Europe

In 1946, Winston Churchill used the term iron curtain to refer to the
boundary between Western Europe and communist Eastern Europe

The Truman Doctrine set a new course for American foreign policy by
promising help to nations struggling against communism

The United States gave billions of dollars in aid to Western Europe
as a part of the Marshall Plan

What organization did the Soviet Union create in response to the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization?
the Warsaw Pact

The Korean War began when
North Korean forces invaded South Korea

With General MacArthur’s assurances about China, President Truman
authorized a U.S. attack north of the 38th parallel in Korea

Why did President Truman fire General MacArthur?
the general’s letter attacking the President became public

Fear of mutually assured destruction kept the Soviets and Americans
from ever using a nuclear weapon against each other

In its policy of massive retaliation, the United States warned it would
meet communist threats to U.S. allies with overwhelming force

John Foster Dulles believed that war could be prevented only by
brinkmanship

How did the Soviet Union react to Hungarian demonstrations in 1956?
it brutally crushed the Hungarian revolution

Why were Britain and France alarmed by Egypt’s nationalization of the Suez Canal?
it threatened the flow of Middle Eastern oil to Europe

Congress created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to coordinate
the space-related efforts of U.S. scientists and the military

The fear that communists were working to destroy American life created a reaction known as the
Red Scare

The Smith Act made it illegal to
advocated the violent overthrow of the U.S. government

In the 1990’s, tangible evidence emerged indicating that
Julius Rosenberg had indeed been guilty of passing atomic secrets

What did the term McCarthyism become a catchword for?
extreme, reckless charges

What was a key provision of the GI Bill of Rights?
the financial aid it gave to veterans who wanted to go to college

One American was born ever 7 seconds during the peak of
the baby boom

Which law outlawed closed shops?
the Taft-Hartley Act

What did President Truman pledge to do as part of his Fair Deal?
strengthen the New Deal reforms and establish new programs

One reason for Dwight D. Eisenhower’s popularity as President was
the strength of the American economy during the 1950’s

Which statement identifies a key reason why Americans moved to suburbs after World War II?
Americans wanted to escape the overcrowding in rural areas

What was one reason Americans moved to the Sunbelt?
to find jobs in the aerospace, defense, and electronics industries

What was the fundamental change in the postwar economy?
the rapid growth of the service sector

The California Master Plan was part of a national trend to
make higher education accessible to more citizens

Shopping became a popular pastime in the United States after World War II because Americans
had more money, access to easy credit, and new products to buy

By 1960, the work of Dr. Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin had
nearly eliminated polio

The growth of television, Hollywood films, and national radio programs
tended to erode distinct regional and ethnic cultures

Rock music originated in the gospel and blues traditions of what group?
African Americans

Critics of the culture of the 1950’s complained
about its emphasis on conformity

The beatniks were a group of
writers and artists who despised materialism and conformity

What book shocked Americans in 1962 with its claim that one fourth of Americans still lived in poverty?
Michael Harrington’s The Other American

What did the termination policy aim to do?
end tribal government and relocate Native Americans to cities

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