The disastrous effects of World War I and the Great Depression led
to the rise of totalitarian regimes in some countries
After coming to power in Italy, Benito Mussolini
banned political parties, took over the press, and suppressed strikes
After World War I, the Weimar Republic
appointed Adolf Hitler chancellor of Germany
After World War I, the Japanese military
reasserted its power and began aggressive military expansion
What policy did Great Britain, France, and the United States pursue against the new regimes in Germany, Italy, and Japan in the 1930’s?
German troops overwhelmed Poland in 1939 by unleashing a blitzkrieg,
a new style of warfare that emphasized speed and firepower
Hitler’s plans to invade Britain depended on
the Luftwaffe controlling the skies above the English Channel
During the mid-1930’s, President Roosevelt realized that most Americans
opposed U.S. intervention in the problems of Europe
After World War II began, U.S. interventionists believed that Britain
was fighting for free countries everywhere and needed U.S. aid
After World War II began, U.S. isolationists believed that
the only way to keep America safe was to be completely neutral
What was Congress’s purpose in passing the Lend-Lease Act?
to provide Britain with the aid it needed but could not afford
Japan decided to attack Pearl Harbor because
the United States firmly opposed Japanese expansion
During the Bataan Death March,
close to 10,000 American and Filipino prisoners of war died
What is one way American women mobilized for the war effort?
They joined army, navy, and Coast Guard auxiliaries
Joseph Stalin admitted that American military production
was crucial to the Allied victory in World War II
Why was the Doolittle Raid important?
it bolstered American morale for the long fight ahead in the Pacific
The Battle of Coral Sea was crucial because it
renewed the confidence of the United States
Why did the Allies pursue a “Europe First” strategy?
they considered Germany to be their most dangerous enemy
The Battle of Stalingrad
ended any realistic plans Hitler had for dominating Europe
Why did Allied leaders want to drive Germany our of North Africa?
doing so would pave the way for an invasion of Italy
The invasion of Italy was difficult for the Allies because
the mountains and rivers of Italy slowed the Allied advance
In the most important naval battle of World War II, the United States
decisively defeated the Japanese in the Battle of Midway
President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 8802, which
assured fair hiring practices in any government-funded job
What was one long-term effect of the bracero program?
it initiated decades of migratory labor in western states
Some 100,000 Japanese Americans were evacuated from the West Coast during World War II and made to live in internment camps
because some West Coast leaders questioned their loyalty
In what way did Americans’ lives change during World War II?
some goods were rationed to free up resources for war production
In preparing for Operation Overlord, the Allies created a fake army to
convince the German army that the attack would come at Calais
How did the Battle of the Bulge ultimately damage Hitler’s efforts?
it used up German reserves and demoralized German troops
President Truman decided to use the atomic bomb against Japan
to save American lives
Hitler blamed Jews for all of Germany’s ills, especially
Germany’s defeat in World War I
What was the goal of Hitler’s “Final Solution”?
the extermination of all Jews in areas controlled by Germany
The War Refugee Board, established by President Roosevelt, worked
with the Red Cross to save Eastern European Jews
At Yalta, the “Big Three” agreed that
Bulgaria, Poland, and Romania would be free and hold elections
Shortly after World War II,
leading Nazis were put on trial for their actions during the war
What did many Americans realize about the United States as a result of World War II?
U.S. prosperity hinged on world peace and economic development
At Potsdam, Harry S. Truman hoped that Joseph Stalin would confirm the Soviet Union’s plan to
establish representative governments in Eastern Europe
In 1946, Winston Churchill used the term iron curtain to refer to the
boundary between Western Europe and communist Eastern Europe
The Truman Doctrine set a new course for American foreign policy by
promising help to nations struggling against communism
The United States gave billions of dollars in aid to Western Europe
as a part of the Marshall Plan
What organization did the Soviet Union create in response to the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization?
the Warsaw Pact
The Korean War began when
North Korean forces invaded South Korea
With General MacArthur’s assurances about China, President Truman
authorized a U.S. attack north of the 38th parallel in Korea
Why did President Truman fire General MacArthur?
the general’s letter attacking the President became public
Fear of mutually assured destruction kept the Soviets and Americans
from ever using a nuclear weapon against each other
In its policy of massive retaliation, the United States warned it would
meet communist threats to U.S. allies with overwhelming force
John Foster Dulles believed that war could be prevented only by
How did the Soviet Union react to Hungarian demonstrations in 1956?
it brutally crushed the Hungarian revolution
Why were Britain and France alarmed by Egypt’s nationalization of the Suez Canal?
it threatened the flow of Middle Eastern oil to Europe
Congress created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to coordinate
the space-related efforts of U.S. scientists and the military
The fear that communists were working to destroy American life created a reaction known as the
The Smith Act made it illegal to
advocated the violent overthrow of the U.S. government
In the 1990’s, tangible evidence emerged indicating that
Julius Rosenberg had indeed been guilty of passing atomic secrets
What did the term McCarthyism become a catchword for?
extreme, reckless charges
What was a key provision of the GI Bill of Rights?
the financial aid it gave to veterans who wanted to go to college
One American was born ever 7 seconds during the peak of
the baby boom
Which law outlawed closed shops?
the Taft-Hartley Act
What did President Truman pledge to do as part of his Fair Deal?
strengthen the New Deal reforms and establish new programs
One reason for Dwight D. Eisenhower’s popularity as President was
the strength of the American economy during the 1950’s
Which statement identifies a key reason why Americans moved to suburbs after World War II?
Americans wanted to escape the overcrowding in rural areas
What was one reason Americans moved to the Sunbelt?
to find jobs in the aerospace, defense, and electronics industries
What was the fundamental change in the postwar economy?
the rapid growth of the service sector
The California Master Plan was part of a national trend to
make higher education accessible to more citizens
Shopping became a popular pastime in the United States after World War II because Americans
had more money, access to easy credit, and new products to buy
By 1960, the work of Dr. Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin had
nearly eliminated polio
The growth of television, Hollywood films, and national radio programs
tended to erode distinct regional and ethnic cultures
Rock music originated in the gospel and blues traditions of what group?
Critics of the culture of the 1950’s complained
about its emphasis on conformity
The beatniks were a group of
writers and artists who despised materialism and conformity
What book shocked Americans in 1962 with its claim that one fourth of Americans still lived in poverty?
Michael Harrington’s The Other American
What did the termination policy aim to do?
end tribal government and relocate Native Americans to cities