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APUSH Chapter 35

Joseph Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)

Benito Mussolini
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. (p. 786)

Adolf Hitler
Born in Austria, Hitler became a radical German nationalist during World War I. He led the National Socialist German Workers’ Party-the Nazi Party-in the 1920s and became dictator of Germany in 1933. He led Europe into World War II. (p. 786)

Albert Einstein
(1879-1955) A German Jew, Stated that matter and energy are interchangeable, and that even a particle of matter contains enormous amounts of potential energy. He also stated that the speed of light is the only thing constant from all frames of reference.

Leo Szilard
United States physicist and molecular biologist who helped develop the first atom bomb and later opposed the use of all nuclear weapons (1898-1964)

Edward Teller
United States physicist (born in Hungary) who worked on the first atom bombs and the first hydrogen bomb (born in 1908)

Winston Churchill
Soldier, politician and finally prime minister, Winston Churchill was one of Britain’s greatest 20th-century heroes. He is particularly remembered for his indomitable spirit while leading Great Britain to victory in World War II.

London Economic Conference
Conference in 1933 subverted by FDR’s attempts to protect US dollars from deflation

Good Neighbor Policy
FDR’s foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region

Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act
(1934) The Act was designed to raise American exports and was aimed at both relief and recovery.Led by Cordell Hull, it helped reverse the high-tariff policy.

a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)

Nazi Party
the political party founded in Germany in 1919 and brought to power by Hitler in 1933

Rome-Berlin Axis
The alliance between Italy and Germany (Mussolini and Hitler)

American Isolationism
refers to the United States’ refusal to participate in foreign affairs or commerce

Neutrality Acts
Originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations.

Spanish Civil War
civil war in Spain in which General Franco succeeded in overthrowing the republican government

Quarantine Speech
Speech that marks turning point in US policy from isolationism to interventionism

Hitler Aggression
Wouldn’t stop. He was a power hungry man.

Hitler-Stalin non-aggression pact
This was the surprise move by Hitler to secure his Eastern front, giving him the green light to march on Poland, and after that, his march on the Western Democracies. Though Hitler and Stalin were foes, Stalin hoped that Germany and the Western Democracies would kill each other off, leaving him the ruler of Europe. At long last Britain and France realized the folly of appeasement. Roosevelt promptly issued Neutrality proclamations including the Cash-and-Carry system. With this pact, World War II was only hours away. (832)

Invasion of Poland
Germany invaded, breaking their agreement, so Britain and France declared war, starting World War II

Cash and Carry policy
United States aid to Great Britain that did not cause U.S. to loose its position of neutrality

Refugees of the Holocaust
Those taken to concentration camps were treaty horribly. Jews made of most of the refugee population.

special police force in Nazi Germany founded as a personal bodyguard for Adolf Hitler in 1925

Third Reich
The Third German Empire, established by Adolf Hitler in the 1930s.

Jewish Migration
Many Jews left Europe to avoid persecution. They came to United States most of the time. Some famous Jewish Immigrants are Albert Einstein, Hannah Arendt, and Marc Chagall.

Phony War
was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German invasion of Poland and preceding the Battle of France. Although the great powers of Europe had declared war on one another, neither side had yet committed to launching a significant attack, and there was relatively little fighting on the ground

Battle of Britain
the prolonged bombardment of British cities by the German Luftwaffe during World War II and the aerial combat that accompanied it

Election of 1940
Franklin D. Roosevelt/democrat (“reluctant servant”) vs. Wendell Wilkie/republican= Roosevelt

allows America to sell, lend, or lease arms or other war supplies to any nation considered “vital to the defense of the U.S.”

Hitler’s Attack of the Soviet union
Allowed Britain to catch breath and take a break from war

Atlantic Charter
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war

Attack of Pearl Harbor
japan attacked america on december 7,1941; only time america had been attacked by a foreign country before 9/11

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