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APUSH Chapter 34 ID Terms

Good Neighbor Policy
Franklin D. Roosevelt policy in which the U.S. pledged that the U.S. would no longer intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American countries. This reversed Teddy Roosevelt’s Big Stick Policy.

Joseph Stalin
1879-1953, Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition.

Benito Mussolini
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia, joined Germany in the Axis pact, and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy., right-wing movement, socialist, influenced by Nietzsche; after WWI broke out, he wanted Italy to participate with France. There was many problems going on in Italy, thus he promised improvement and got into power.

Adolf Hitler
(1889-1945) This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces. German Nazi dictator during World War II.

Nye Committee
In 1934 Senator Gerald P. Nye of North Dakota held hearings to investigate the country’s involvement on WW1; this committee documented the huge profits that arms factories had made during the war. Gerald Nye of North Dakota believed that the U.S. should stay out of foreign wars.

Neutrality Acts
Originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations. They were four laws passed in the late 1930s that were designed to keep the US out of international incidents

Francisco Franco
Led army group known as Nationalists against Spanish Popular Front after they had won the 1936 elections. The Civil War that followed resulted in 600,000 deaths and extreme cruelties on both sides. After the Nationalist rebels succeeded against the Republicans, Franco became Spain’s dictator. Since Italy and Germany had given him support, this was considered a defeat for the cause of democracies. However, Franco did not tie his fate to the Axis powers in WW II and was thus able to survive them in 1945. He continued as dictator of Spain until his death in 1975 after which the Spanish Bourbon dynasty was restored under King Juan Carlos. Spain adopted a liberal constitution in 1976 and made a remarkable transition from dictatorship to pluralistic democracy.

Spanish Civil War
In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco.

Russo-German Nonaggression Pact
Hitler and Stalin promised to remain neutral if either country were to become involved in war; August 1939. Was supposed to last 10 years, but Hitler invaded Russia in 1941.

Munich Conference
Appeasement. 1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany’s territory any further.

Winston Churchill
1874 -1965; A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West. greatest wartime leader; rallied the British with his speeches, infectious confidence, and bulldog determination; known for his “iron curtain” speech; led the British during World War II; agreed Hitler should be conquered; was thrown out by his own people.

Cash and Carry
Policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.

Lend-Lease Act
Approve by Congress in March 1941; The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered “vital to the defense of the United States.”

Atlantic Charter
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war

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