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American History Chapter 16 Guided Readings

Joseph Stalin
Nation: Soviet Union
Political Movements/Beliefs: focused on creating a model communist state. Totalitarian government.
Aggressive actions taken: massive campaigns to collectivize agriculture and to industrialize the nation, the great purge; police state; killed 8 million

Benito Mussolini
Nation: Italy
Political Movements/Beliefs: Facism, extreme nationalism, militaristic expansion, strong centralized government, and anti-communism
Aggressive Actions: the “march on Rome”; Rome-Berlin Axis pact; invasion of Ethiopia

Adolf Hitler
Nation: Germany
Political Movements/Beliefs: nazism; extreme nationalism; racism; strong government
Aggressive Actions: Third Reich; pulled out of the League of Nations; built up military; sent troops into Rhineland; set up Rome-Berlin Axis pact

Japanese Militarists
Nation: Japan
Political Movements/Beliefs: Japan politics; nationalism; militaristic expansionism
Agressive Actions: invasion of Manchuria; pulled out of League of Nations

Francisco Franco
Nation: Spain
Political Movement/Beliefs: totalitarian government
Aggressive Actions: uprising against the elected government; Civil War

Why did Neville Chamberlain sign the Munich Pact?
avoid war

Why did Winston Churchill oppose the pact?
dishonorable; would not prevent war

What did Germany and the USSR agree to in their accords?
not to fight; divide Poland between them

What happened to Poland as a result of the invasion, and how did Britain and France respond to it?
Poland was divided between Germany and USSR; the country ceased to exist; Britain and France declared war on Germany.

What were the surrender terms offered to France?
Germany occupied the northern part of France; a Nazi controlled puppet government was set up at Vichy in southern France.

What type battle was the Battle of Berlin, and why was England’s victory so important?
Air war, Victory forced Hitler to call off the invasion of Britain indefinitely.

Why didn’t France and Britain accept as many German Jews as they might have?
worried about fueling anti-semitism; didn’t want any more

What did the Nuremberg laws do?
lost property; had to wear Star of David; ghettos; civil rights decreased

What happened during Kristallnacht?
Gangs of Nazis; attacks of Jewish synagogues.

Why didn’t the US accept as many German Jews as it might have?
Jobs; Depression; anti semitism; fear of “enemy agents”

What groups did Nazis single out for extermination?
Jews; Gypsies; Ukrainians; Russians; communists; disabled; and non Aryans

How did the Nazis go about exterminating the approximately 11 million people who died in the Holocaust?
They shot, beat, starved, gassed and hung them. Also they worked them to death, injected them with poison, and killed them in “medical experiments”.

What did the Neutrality Act allow?
buy US arms if paid cash and transport on own ships

Who were the Axis powers? What did their alliance mean for the US?
Germany, Italy, and Japan. If US went to war with one, two front war.

What did the Lend-Lease Act do?
lend supplies to any country whose defense is vital to the US

What did the US do to protest Japan’s action?
trade fire arms

What pledges were contained in the Atlantic Charter?
collective security, disarm self determination, freedom of the Jews, and economic cooperation.

Who were the Allies?
26 nations joined to fight against Axis powers

What did the attack do to the US Pacific fleet?
almost destroyed it

Why did Germany and Italy declare war on the US?
they had signed a mutual defense treaty with Japan in which they agreed to come to each others aid in the event of an attack

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